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1859] CORRESPONDENCE. *37 I ever said that it was prudent to carry out that principle at any particular moment. All experience shows that the tendency of a newly liberated state is to extend itself, but, as things go, it is much wiser in Greece to check that tendency, and rather to dig and make roads. N.B. I have, with great difficulty, and not without the intervention of the civil magistrates, pro- cured the mending of a road close by here, so I sympathize with you on that head and am prepared to canonize King Archelaos as my patron hero. Was it not he who vSuas odovs %Ttp*Vl. . . . My article on the Orthodox Church will, I hope, appear in the April Edinburgh. You will find a little about your Othoman domination volume. I am going to do them another on Sir F. Palgraves Normandy and England. Are you up in his writings ? I dont remember that either of you ever refers to the other; I am not sure that you would appreciate one another; but you always go together in my mind. I make my historical system out of an union of you two. Between you, you work out the fact that the Roman Empire did not die in 476, but lived on as long as you please after. You do the East, which has been forgotten, he the West, which has been misconceived. But he does it only by hints and fragments, and in his present book he …
408 APPENDIX. date 1521, but it adds many supplementary particulars which must have been taken1 either from oral statements, or from the preface to the Dutch translation of the book, of the year 1520, 2 and in which the author seems to have embraced the side and doctrines of Luther, still more decidedly than appears from any other surviving document. As the sum of the Reformatory doctrines delivered by him at an earlier date, we meet with the following :3 We Christians have, for 800 years and more, been reduced from freedom into wretched slavery, namely, since the days of Boniface III., who first received from the Emperor Phokas the name of Supreme Priest. For, in virtue of this designation, his followers have usurped authority to make laws, and yet no pope has the right to impose upon men, not to say upon Christians, an}T laws which shall be obligatory under penalty of mortal sin. It is doubtful whether Peter possessed any higher authority than the other Apostles, and least it is impos- sible to demonstrate from Scripture that he did. The Pope is set up to us as an idol. All laymen are priests, and, if we except women and children, have equally a legal right to consecrate the Sacraments, although they would commit sin if they did it without permission. Just as of old, all with the same exception of women, were without distinction permitted publicly to teach and explain the Scripture, so …
Leo Phokas is a member of the Phokas Family.