History of Arizona


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In 1859, war again broke out, and in 1860, the
Navajos attacked Fort Defiance. Finally Gen-
eral Canby made a long campaign against them,
leading his troops in person. After General
Canby’s campaign against the Navajos, when the
soldiers were employed to repel the Texas inva-
sion, the Navajos, as well as the Apaches, rode
roughshod over the country. This was in the
winter of 1861 and the spring and summer of
1862. The Navajos and Apaches in 1862, when
General Canby was relieved by General Carle-
ton, were united in war against the Americans.
General Carleton, in his testimony in 1865 be-
fore the Committee on investigation into Indian
affairs, says:
“The Indian difficulties in New Mexico, since
the treaty with New Mexico, have obliged the
United States to keep in that territory a force
whose average strength has been at least three
thousand men, employees and all reckoned in.
This covers a period of eighteen years. A large
proportion of these troops have been cavalry,
the most expensive arm in the military service,
especially in New Mexico, where forage is very
expensive. The horses required as remounts for
this cavalry have to be brought across the plains
from the States at great risk and expense.
Sometimes large numbers have been stampeded
en route and have never been heard from since.
Many die before they reach this country. Those
which arrive here it takes at least a year to
acclimate, and after this the loss of horses by
death, by being broken down, and lost on scouts,
and killed in action, and stolen by Indians, is
enormous, compared with losses of cavalry

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02 Apr 2013
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